I get many questions about my live insect photography, so I have created this page to answer some of the questions. Many examples of my images can be found in the Galleries  page. Let's start at the most important part - Flash

Flash

 Flash is key to how I photograph insects. Some people use flash because you need a small aperture for greater depth of field and a fast shutter to stop blur and therefore the image becomes under exposed, as a last resort add flash for more light.
 Let's start from a different angle. When photographing insects we will get blur from subject movement and hand shake, what is a great way of getting sharp images? - use flash. Flash is desired not as a last resort but because it is a great way to get sharp images and we will base our whole technique around it's use.
 Flash enables us to get sharp images. Imagine taking a photograph in a dark room, of course we will get a dark image even with a long shutter speed. Now take another image in the dark room with a long shutter speed but add a pulse of light. The duration of the exposure will be controlled by how long the pulse of light lasts. If we can send a pulse of light with a duration of around 1/8000 of second, that is how long the it takes to capture the image. Flash can do this. A typical flash will have a flash duration of around 1/400  at full power to maybe 1/25000 at lowest power so firing a flash at low power will give us a short flash duration.
 Of course most live insect photography will take place in daylight so we need to set the camera up to reduce the amount of natural daylight hitting the sensor. If too much ambient light is included in the image the short  flash duration will be of no use. To put it another way, the subject needs to be exposed mainly by the flash not the ambient light.

Aperture
 A small aperture (higher F number) will give us a greater depth of field which is usually desired in close up photography. If we set the aperture too small, the image will loose some sharpness due to diffraction. A small aperture will also cut down on the amount of ambient light hitting the sensor which is what is desired to enable the flash to work it's magic. I find on my full frame mirrorless camera F11 is a small enough to give some good depth of field but not too small for diffraction to be a problem.

Shutter speed
 Shutter speed looses some of it's usual importance to stop motion blur because we use  the short flash duration to achieve this. The shutter speed should be set high enough to cut down on the ambient light but not so high that we are forced to use the flash in HSS mode (High Speed Sync). In HSS mode the flash duration will increase and the flash will be lit for the time the shutter is open which is undesirable. The amount of natural daylight may affect how we set the shutter speed but always a good starting point is the max sync speed of your camera. In my case it is 1/250 sec. In my previous camera it was 1/160 sec. I could write much more about HSS but lets just say it is not what is needed to achieve a short flash duration. So we have F11 and 1/250 as our starting settings.

ISO
 ISO is pretty simple. Set it to base ISO. Maximum image quality and it will reduce the effect of ambient light. So for my camera the starting point is F11, 1/250 sec, ISO 100.

Diffuser and flash position
 The flash diffuser is quite important because without it our image can have that harsh, hard light look that I am sure we have all seen either in close up shots or even portraits of people when flash is used. We use the diffuser in a similar way to how a portrait photographer uses soft boxes and umbrellas and in the same way  a portrait photographer would not just put a flash on top the camera and expect to get a good look, we cannot either. The position of the flash can also have an effect on the quality of light. Even though we can set the camera up to give us sharp images getting a good soft light with a natural look can be a challenge. Here are some setups I have tried over the years. I had other camera setups before this but no longer have photographs of them. The last three images are my current set up and the best setup I have had so far. One flash will also give excellent results. You do not need a cage or two flashes. I got the cage to enable taking the camera out of the cage and leaving the flashes and diffuser setup on the cage. I use two flashes because it adds a little extra light and I mount them on ball heads so I can angle them downwards. 



Putting it all together
 So we have F11, 1/250 sec, ISO 100 and a flash and diffuser. We know we want to expose the image with mostly light from the flash and to cut down on the amount of ambient light. One way to test you settings is to take an image with the flash turned off. What we want is an under exposed image maybe a stop maybe two stops or more. The more the image is under exposed the blacker the the dark parts of the image will appear after adding the flash. On a really sunny day you may find the image is not underexposed at all with the flash turned off in which case you have a few options. 1/Up the shutter speed if you can but do not go over max sync speed. 2/ Use a smaller aperture but that may loose image quality due to diffraction. 3/Cast a shadow on the subject. 4/Try on a duller day. 5/Use a n/d or polarising filter and up the flash power but we do not want the flash power too high. So overcast days may be better or when the sun is lower and less bright. This all sounds complicated but once you are setup it is quite straight forward and I hardly ever do test shots with no flash. I do sometimes look at the exposure meter in the viewfinder before I take the shot. The meter will read before the flash fires so it will read the ambient light.
So now we shoot with the flash turned on
We have F11, ISO 100, 1/250 sec, and I would suggest starting with a flash power  of 1/8
Subject too dark - turn up the flash but we don't want to really go above 1/4 power or the flash duration becomes long enough for motion blur to creep in. The higher the flash power the longer the flash will take to recharge if you wish to fire short bursts.
Subject to bright - turn down the flash.
You can use TTL which will alter the flash setting automatically but I find it slows down my camera and I would rather have the short burst of shots.
It can be tricky with for instance, a white flower and a dark bumble bee to get a good exposure.
Below are a couple of examples of the type of image we desire with the flash turned off. They can be darker but letting in some ambient light can give a more pleasing background.  These type of shots are just to show how under exposed the image is before we add flash and not something that needs to be done on a regular basis.



Post processing
 I use Lightoom but most applications will do the job. This subject is too complicated to go into here but here are before and after shots to show what HUGE difference it can make. I crop heavily. This enables me shoot from a little further away which increases depth of field and improves auto focus. For webpage viewing the cropped images are still plenty detailed enough. If an image was desired for a large print I would maybe ease up on the cropping. I print my images up to A3+  (19"x13" or 330mm x 485mm) and most look fine. I find a high megapixel camera will help here as you can crop in and still maintain detail. I always shoot RAW to give me more control in post processing. ​​​​​​​

Focus
  When all of the above has been set up, we will get a sharp image regardless of subject or hand movement. The tricky bit is focusing on the main subject and not getting a great sharp image of something in front or behind the subject.  I said at the start, this is how I shoot and I realise other people shoot in other ways. The whole point of this page is to have somewhere I can point people who ask questions about how I shoot. The camera and lens combination you own will decide whether you can shoot using continuous autofocus  in the way I do, or not. In general the older and lower quality your gear the less good will be the autofocus. A good quality modern camera will auto focus fine as in the examples above. The best thing to is try it and see if it works for you. You can use manual focus if you wish and everything else on this page will still be relevant.
  I use autofocus a lot. I also use back button focus so my focusing is decoupled from the shutter button. It is perfectly possible to use manual focus but I prefer the method outlined below.
 For insects on flowers or indeed just flowers, I use continuous  autofocus with a small spot. Using this method you can usually focus on the subjects head or maybe eye depending on the size of the insect. Using continuous autofocus will take care of any slight movement of the subject or the camera.
 The flying insects are of course much trickier. For bees I usually focus on the bee while it is on the flower. Then as it lifts off I fire a short burst (maybe 3 shots) while NOT pressing the focus button. I have found no way to make my camera's autofocus track a flying bee with any regularity. Maybe the really expensive modern, latest release, cameras can do this but alas I do not have one. For something like a hoverfly in flight, i.e. an  insect that is mostly hovering, I either use the small spot continuous auto focus or I have another button set to wide continuous​​​​​​​ autofocus.  Wide autofocus will only work if the insect is well away from other items like the flower or the background. The hoverfly above covered with pollen and flying  would have been possible with wide. If it is possible to lock on with wide it will track the subject to some extent. You can always stop pressing the focus button and move the camera in and out instead.
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